Large-scale public infrastructures such as transportation and energy networks are vital arteries of urban environments. Citizens expect such city-wide systems to function effectively, efficiently, and in a user- and environmentally-friendly manner. In order to ensure such operation, infrastructure providers need a real-time view on the operational status of the infrastructure to effectively control it. To this end, infrastructure providers make great strides towards building cyber-physical systems (CPS)  that have the potential to transform their services.
An emerging development is the extension of CPSs with a social dimension to form cyber-physical social systems (CPSSs) . Such systems consist not only of software and raw sensing and actuating hardware, but are fundamentally grounded in the behaviour of human actors who both generate data and make informed decisions based on data. This raises new research challenges due to additional complexity introduced by social systems in terms of (i) unpredictability due to social dynamics, (ii) privacy concerns associated with the processing of sensitive social data, and (iii) the number and heterogeneity of data sources that need to be integrated.
 Guo, W., Zhang, Y., & Li, L. (2015). The integration of CPS, CPSS, and ITS: A focus on data. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 20(4), 327–335. http://doi.org/10.1109/TST.2015.7173449
 Wang, F.-Y. (2010). The Emergence of Intelligent Enterprises: From CPS to CPSS. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 25(4), 85–88. http://doi.org/10.1109/MIS.2010.104